Bahasa Inggris XII


Materi Bahasa Inggris Kelas XII SMA/ MA

TYPE OF TEXT

Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used, texts are divided into several types. They are narrative, recount, descriptive, report, explanation, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, procedure, discussion, review, anecdote, spoof, and news item. These variations are known as GENRES.

NARRATIVE
Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged

RECOUNT
Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives
Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure

DESCRIPTIVE
Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

REPORT
Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.
Generic Structure
1. General classification
2. Description
Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense

EXPLANATION
Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.
Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition

HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation
Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition
Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done.

PROCEDURE
Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms

DISCUSSION
Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)
Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner

REVIEW
Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation
Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor

ANECDOTE
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident
Generic Structure:
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions

SPOOF
Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged

NEWS ITEM
Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.



Visual Aids & PowerPoint

Helping you present professionally

Visual aids are an important part of many presentations. The most commonly used media are the flipchart and computer-based presentation programs. Here are some suggestions for making the most of your visual aids:

Flipchart
A flipchart mounted on a portable easel works best when used with a relatively small audience – 20 or fewer people. A flipchart can be prepared prior to your presentation. You can also write or draw during your presentation – especially to record audience responses. Use bold colors, but avoid using ink that bleeds through the paper. Don’t look at your flipchart when speaking. If you must write on the flipchart, pause, then resume speaking when you’re done. Use small strips of masking tape to facilitate changing from one page to the next.

Computer-based visuals
The technology is rapidly changing. These days, using a laptop computer and presentation software such as Microsoft PowerPoint is the norm. Add a screen and other equipment, and you can produce and display dramatic visual aids, including animation and simulations. Computer-based visuals are becoming the standard for most technical, educational or business-related presentations. Useful for large and small audiences, they can convey simple as well as complex information. If you use a remote control, you can change the visuals while walking about the room. To accomplish this you’ll need a data projector, a device that accepts output from a computer and projects it onto a screen. Plan to create the visuals in advance, to ensure all of the electronic components work together and be sure to rehearse with them.

Keep your visual aids:

  • Visible
  • Simple
  • Colorful, but don’t let them upstage you
  • Justified by the content — not too many or too few slides

For effective PowerPoint shows:

  • Don’t read the slides to your audience!
  • Make your text large.
  • Choose colors that make the text easier to read.
  • Use bullet points instead of full sentences.
  • Don’t let the text or graphics fly around too much.
  • Avoid charts and diagrams that are hard to see.

Most Importantly - Remember, you control the presentation; don’t let it control you. PowerPoint should be a “visual aid” – not the entire show.

Why Laughter is Good For You

Laughter reduces stress and perks up the immune system.
Warning: Laughter may be hazardous to what ails you. That’s the message from researchers investigating the physiology of mirth. Not that laughter as good medicine is anything new. Even Hippocrates took note of its salutary effect. Now, though, there are studies to prove in measurable ways that laughter does in fact soothe the mind and restore the body.

“If medicine could harness the proven health benefits of laughter,” says Clifford Kuhn, M.D., professor of psychiatry at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, “drug companies would be knocking themselves out to get the patent.”

No question levity boosts resilience in the face of all manner of assault. Mirth, especially when directed at ourselves, imparts a sense of control, puts distance between us and our pain, gives us perspective, relieves tension, allows us to take a break. As Milton Berle put it, “Laughter is an instant vacation.”

But can it really help heal? Send in the clowns and get better? Dr. Kuhn, author of The Fun Factor, says yes and so do the scientists who have taken laughter into the lab and found that a walk on the funny side does a wondrous amount of good. Their work shows that laughter:

  • Reduces the level of stress hormones
  • Perks up the immune system
  • Relaxes muscles
  • Clears the respiratory tract
  • Increases circulation
  • Eases perceived pain

And at laugh’s end, feel-good endorphins flow, blood pressure settles down to below the norm, and increased oxygen to the brain revs up creativity. In short, laughter both stimulates and soothes, which is why we feel “enlivened, refreshed and clear-headed, much as we do after an aerobic workout,” observes laugh researcher Lee Berk, associate professor of pathology at Loma Linda University in California.

In fact, laughter really is a workout, according to psychiatrist William Fry, M.D., professor emeritus at Stanford University. “It’s a total body exercise,” he says. What’s more, the benefits build when you laugh often and regularly; as with any exercise, conditioning requires repetition. Dr. Fry should know. He has been researching mirth for more than 40 years and is considered the grandfather of the field.

But laughter is not a subject that lends itself easily to scientific scrutiny. It’s a surprisingly complex physical response to the psychological tickle of humor. Indeed, this seemingly simple act involves most of our body systems, including, of course, the brain. Using pinpoint imaging to eyeball the brain circuitry of volunteers as they laugh, scientists can track the movement of mer-riment as it activates both left and right hemispheres. Maybe this brain-wide involvement is why, as writer Daniel Goleman notes in his book Emotional Intelligence, “laughter…seems to help people think more broadly and associate more freely.” Call is the “ha-ha to aha!” effect.

Dr. Fry takes it a step further. “All mental stimulation expands brain function,” he says, “which is a good reason to laugh a lot.”

Immune Booster
Another fine reason is the measurable impact of laughter on the immune system. Dr. Berk’s field of interest is psychoneuroimmunology, the study of how the brain and the immune system, in effect, talk to each other. To listen in on this “conversation,” he hooks subjects up to IVs and angiocatheters and monitors them as they watch comedy tapes. Taking blood samples at 10-minute intervals, he has found that levels of the stress hormones cortisol and epinephrine actually lower when we laugh. (They both rise when we’re anxious and contribute to the recurrence of heart attacks.) He has also shown that laughing increases antibody immunoglobin A, which fights upper-respiratory-tract infections, mobilizes cells that attack tumors and viruses, and activates infection-fighting white blood cells.

The Humor Cure
A demonstration of laughter’s splendid power lies in the experience of Saranne Rothberg, a single mother from New Jersey who was diagnosed five years ago, at age 35, with advanced breast cancer. At the time, she was struggling through a contentious divorce and had a 5-year-old daughter, Lauriel, to keep safe and happy. Would she have the strength to parent? Would she even survive? From the doctor’s office, Saranne went right to the video store and rented every comedy video on the shelves. The next morning, thanks to Bill Cosby, et al., she put aside her considerable tears and enlisted her daughter and friends as “humor buddies” to tell her funny stories every day. So unshakably passionate was Saranne about the goodness of laughter that during the grueling course of three surgeries, 44 radiation treatments and two years of immune-weakening chemotherapy, she founded a charity, the ComedyCures Foundation, to bring humor strategies to others. Through it all, Saranne worked on the foundation, cared for Lauriel and, of course, laughed. “I was around illness all the time,” she recalls, “but I never even got a cold. It was as though my cancerous breast and I laughed and turned stress and disease on its head. We laughed and moved on.” Today she is cancer free. “I learned that whatever happens, you have a choice,” she says. “Choosing to laugh puts you in control.”

Though not everyone experiences such a turnaround, Saranne’s triumph over illness hardly surprises Dr. Kuhn, who runs humor-therapy groups for cancer patients and is himself a part-time stand-up comic. “Laughter is there precisely for the purpose of keeping our balance when we get knocked off,” he says. “It helps counteract things we would otherwise have no control over.”

Why We Laugh
Is this why human beings are blessed with the ability to laugh? Or, alternatively, did laughter evolve to help us connect and bond with each other in order to ensure survival of the species, as Robert Provine, Ph.D., professor of psychology at the University of Maryland and author of Laughter: A Scientific Investigation, suggests?

Both of these theories may be true, happily coexisting under the heading of endurance – the endurance of mind and body.

Of course there are those who wonder if it really matters why we laugh and what happens in the body when we do. Isn’t it enough just to enjoy a good joke? Experts say it actually does matter because the knowledge gained may one day affect the medical treatment we receive and even eliminate the need for some of it. Consider, for example, Dr. Berk’s study showing that mirthful laughter not only lowers the stress hormones that can induce arrhythmias, but is also useful in the process of cardiac rehabilitation. More research is needed, but why wait for science? Go ahead and laugh now. Laugh ‘til the cows come home and don’t worry if the joke is “udder” nonsense. If you do this often, you let fresh air into your mind and sunshine into your soul. You may even fix what’s broken and live happily ever after.

Laughter Begins at Home
We laugh instinctively. In fact, laughter is so hard-wired in us that we would actually have to be taught not to. Academy Award winner Goldie Hawn explains, “It starts from the beginning with how you build your family. Our family laughs together. We laugh at our mis-takes. We make sure we laugh in a funny way at each other, and that we are able to take it so that we learn to have self humor. That in itself is so incredibly healing.”

Here, then, are some tips from Joel Goodman of the HUMOR Project to help families jumpstart laughter at home:

  • On a rotating basis, have each family member be responsible for a “humor bulletin board” on the refrigerator. Each week a different person puts up cartoons, quirky quotes, humorous news stories, silly photos.
  • Take funny photos and, once a month, compile them in a family-fun photo album. Or take digital photos and put them on your family Web site.
  • Once a week, or even every day, have a joke-around at the dinner table where everybody shares something that made them laugh.

Encourage your kids to keep their own humor journals by suggesting they write stories and draw pictures about things that have tickled their funny bones that day. Periodically reread these stories with your kids to re-enjoy the humor.

  1. please help to find the book reference/ journal reference which state that past continuous is the tense that also is used in recount text as you said above

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